The Desert Project – An Analysis of Aridland Soil-Geomorphic Processes

David S. The peopling of the Americas is both the oldest and most frequently researched question in American archaeology. Although rarely considered, early art has the potential to provide insight into questions that may be obscured by other kinds of evidence, particularly stone tools. What part did art play in the peopling of the Americas? This question is addressed starting with a reconsideration of rock varnish chronometrics as applied to Great Basin, eastern California, petroglyphs. This demonstrates, conservatively, that the petroglyph tradition began before 11, YBP, probably before 12, YBP, and potentially in the 14, years range. Comparison of these ages with evidence from other regions in the hemisphere demonstrates substantial artistic and stylistic variation in rock art by the Paleoindian period circa 10,—11, YBP. This suggests that, while art may have been part of the baggage of the first immigrants, regional cultural traditions had already been developed by the Terminal Pleistocene, if not earlier.

Neogene fluvial landscape evolution in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert

Hilly regions around the world are one of the most vulnerable places for inhabitation, where landslides represent a permanent threat for their population. In some particular cases, in the past, due to their topographic features, areas affected by massive landslides served a real opportunity for the location of strategic and fortified settlements. In this study, we have extended a previous approach of correlation between landslides and archaeological heritage, adding 14 new representative case studies of landslided hillforts, a new period with landslided hillforts, and a new typology of relationship landslided tumuli for establishing relative chronologies for landslide inventories.

Rock varnish microlamination dating of late Quaternary geomorphic features in the drylands of western USA. Geomorphology 93, Liu, T., Broecker, W.S.

Several cluster research projects address landscape dynamics in arid lands. Work includes sand transport, dune mobilization, rock breakdown, past environmental changes, natural hazards, climate impact and the intersection of human and natural systems. Recent work focused on the dating of palaeo-shoreline deposits and other geomorphic features, in Southern Africa, the chronology of Chinese loess deposits and development of long time-range dating methods and the dating of fossil human remains using incorporated sand.

Sallie Burrough: Palaeo-environmental reconstruction, landscape dynamics in dryland systems, Palaeolithic archaeology and human dispersal in Africa. Projects research Megafloods and Megadroughts of the upper Zambezi Valley, Zambia; Palaeolithic mega-lakes and early human occupation of the Kalahari and Landscape dynamics in the Kalahari. The research aim is to develop a new generation of model dust emission schemes. The project examines natural hazard impact on people and the environment in southern Mongolia and northern China.

Research addresses desert dust, desertification and achievement of the Millenium Development Goals in drylands.

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The changing focus and approach of geomorphic research suggests that the time is opportune for a summary of the state of discipline. The number of peer-reviewed papers published in geomorphic journals has grown steadily for more than two decades and, more importantly, the diversity of authors with respect to geographic location and disciplinary background geography, geology, ecology, civil engineering, computer science, geographic information science, and others has expanded dramatically.

As more good minds are drawn to geomorphology, and the breadth of the peer-reviewed literature grows, an effective summary of contemporary geomorphic knowledge becomes increasingly difficult.

Geomorphic Characterization. Unit Dating. Lava flows tend to form smooth plains with lobate boundaries (see above), and often contain features suggestive of.

Dating glacial landforms. Applying geochronological tools e. Ever since scientists first recognized that glaciers and ice sheets were once larger in the past, they have desired to know the precise timing of past glaciation. Today, there is a more urgent need to tightly constrain patterns of past glaciation through time and space as projections of future global change rely upon knowledge from the past.

Crude approaches have given way to complex techniques with increasing precision and decreasing uncertainty. Certainly, however, we are only a short way down a long path that carries us closer to a complete understanding and ability to date glacial landforms. The techniques employed to date glacial landforms have been cleverly devised.

For example, determining the growth rate of Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers Edition. Contents Search. Dating Glacial Landforms. Reference work entry First Online: 26 August

Geomorphic Systems

Now at: BRGM, dept. E-mail: s. Carretier, J-F Ritz, J. Jackson, A.

ested in the processes that form geomorphic features and the rates at which those processes occur. One of the common problems faced by both groups.

Up: Contents Previous: 1. Climate of Arizona. Arizona, shaped by a variety of geologic events and processes acting over at least 1. Much of Arizona’s world-renowned scenery is geologic. The Grand Canyon is one of the world’s wonders, while the Petrified Forest National Park, southeast of Holbrook in Apache and Navajo counties, contains the most spectacular display of fossil wood in the world.

In fact, Arizona has 16 national monuments, more than any other state Figure Some are geologic features such as Sunset Crater, just northeast of Flagstaff.

2. Geologic Framework of Arizona

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Dating of extensive alluvial fan surfaces and fluvial features in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile, using cosmogenic nuclides provides unrivalled insights about the onset and variability of aridity. Our data implies an early onset of hyper- aridity in the core region of the Atacama Desert, interrupted by wetter but probably still arid periods.

Aeolian Geomorphology: Introduction, In: Shroder, J.F., Editor-in-Chief, Treatise on Lancaster, N., , Dating eolian features by correlations with global.

Geomorphic Systems is the study of landforms and landscapes in the context of interpreting both deep and near-surface earth processes. This view of the Monterey Submarine Canyon exemplifies the rich materials we will work with in the classroom and in the field. Instructor: Douglas Smith. Back to top. Geomorphic Systems is the study of deep and shallow Earth processes that integrate through time to shape the landforms and landscapes that compose our physical environment.

Once the link between process and landscape is understood, then we can read the landscape to interpret the present and past Earth processes active in a region. The societal applications for that knowledge include land-use planning, geologic hazard mapping, ecosystem restoration and predicting the effects of global climate change. Ecosystem restoration includes either reconstructing an equilibrium landscape in a disturbed site, or encouraging the surface processes that will form the equilibrium landscape over time.

Therefore, the practice of ecosystem restoration requires a fundamental understanding of the intimate links between earth processes and the landforms they construct. Global change affects rates and styles of geomorphic change, therefore, we can read paleoclimate from the soils and landforms we study.

School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford

In the state of Western Australia sits the famous Wolfe Creek crater, the aftermath of a 14,tonne meteorite crashing into Earth thousands of years ago. A new study now claims the impact happened far more recently than we suspected, prompting a rethink on how often giant space rocks actually strike our planet. A team of researchers from universities in Australia and the US took a close look at several features of the crater’s underlying rock to get a precise measurement on the age of Wolfe Creek’s most famous landmark.

And knowing this is not just a geological curiosity, either. As far as neat-looking craters go, they don’t tend to be much bigger. With little rain to wear away the walls of the impact site, Wolfe Creek crater has been remarkably well preserved throughout the ages.

If the shore platforms are contemporary features, cosmogenic 10Be ages used as a tool for the relative dating of young geomorphic surfaces.

The conservation of marine benthic biodiversity is a recognised goal of a number of national and international programs such as the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity CBD. In order to attain this goal, information is needed about the distribution of life in the ocean so that spatial conservation measures such as marine protected areas MPAs can be designed to maximise protection within boundaries of acceptable dimensions.

Ideally, a map would be produced that showed the distribution of benthic biodiversity to enable the efficient design of MPAs. The dilemma is that such maps do not exist for most areas and it is not possible at present to predict the spatial distribution of all marine life using the sparse biological information currently available. Knowledge of the geomorphology and biogeography of the seafloor has improved markedly over the past 10 years. Using multibeam sonar, the benthic ecology of submarine features such as fjords, sand banks, coral reefs, seamounts, canyons, mud volcanoes and spreading ridges has been revealed in unprecedented detail.

Geomorphology


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